We arrived safely and after about a week in London there was a ring on the front door bell. My bike and the large green canvas trunk which I had taken over with me were being delivered by Carter Patterson. They had arrived in London just as the Germans reached Paris. The ancient farm house with its stone mullioned windows stood next to the church.
There was no electricity in the village and in the hall a row of polished brass oil lamps with glass shades gave off a characteristic paraffin smell. The long, dark corridor upstairs, full of shadows in the flickering candlelight, led to my bedroom. A second candle on my dressing-table filled the room with reassuring light. At breakfast, we were given jobs for the day: feeding the hens and pigs and sometimes grooming the horses.
I learned how to milk the cows and then how to turn the milk into clotted cream in the cool dairy with its slate shelves and wide pans of milk. Making butter in the summer, with no ice or a fridge, took ages as I slapped the cream girlw and fro with my hands in a wooden tub. It always came right in the end and I would pat it into shape with the wooden hands into perfect pounds of yellow butter. We had the clotted cream on our porridge for breakfast and fed the remaining skim milk to bletchpey squealing piglets.
I worked on the land doing most of the things which the men did.
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The young farm workers had all been called up leaving a motley crew to work on the farm. Huge cart-horses with feathery fetlocks pulled the lumbering wooden wagons and smaller horses were used for riding or for other work in the fields. One of the jobs I was given was called shamming, this meant harnessing the horse to a heavy hoe and leading it to and fro up and down a vast field of young turnips or cabbages hoeing up the weeds between the rows.
At the end of each row by the hedge, a circular turn brought us to the beginning of the next endless row. I learnt how to drive a tractor and even learned how to sharpen and use a scythe to slice through the nettles. As the summer advanced we helped with the hay-making with many an anxious look up at the sky wondering if it would rain before the hay was cut.
After the cutting, the long rows of hay had to be turned and then raked into big piles ready to be heaved with pitch-forks up on top of the wagon, which would be hauled into the barn. Later on came the harvesting of the corn: sheaves of wheat, oats or barley to be stacked into stooks in neat rows. The sheaves were heavy and the barley very prickly. If the thrashing machine, which came with its team from farm to farm, had not yet come to us the harvest had to taken into the barn.
Then we would ride back on the swaying wagons loaded high with sheaves before making them into a rick with its thatch of straw. We would heave each sheaf high up to be grabbed and carefully placed in position so there was no danger of the rick falling over. The thrashing machine with its whirring wheels and clouds of dust and chaff flying all over the place, brought on paroxysms of hay fever. Evacuees One day, everyone collected in the village hall to receive the evacuees who were coming by train from London where the bombing had started.
These sad little children with labels round their necks and gas masks in cardboard boxes, each clutching a small suitcase and sometimes a Teddy bear or the hand of a brother or sister waited anxiously some of them in tears to see where they were to go. They looked hungry and someone went round giving each child a biscuit and some orangeade. As my godmother already had a house full of people, she had not been chosen to have any of these children, but at the end of the day there were four children standing and still waiting: two brothers, one of whom could not have been more than five and a pair of girls in their early teens.
Nancy took pity on them and we walked back with them bletchlley the farm. Soon they were sitting silently in the kitchen having cups of tea with slices of bread and jam. But the girls were a problem. They wanted to poish back to London and tried to run away, packing their bags and climbing out of girlz upstairs window. The boys stayed for the whole war, visited only occasionally by their mother when she could manage it.
Years later, when the boys were grown up they came back to see the farm where they had been happy, bringing their own children with them.
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One morning, the letter which we had all been girlz dreading came from my mother. She told tirls that her brother Ralph, our favourite uncle, had been killed He was in a Hurricane squadron which went up on hundreds of sorties from aerodromes in the south of England. When he was shot down over Croydon he stayed at the controls until his plane was near an open space in order not to crash into houses.
By that time, eescort was skimming over the treetops, too low for his parachute to open. I tried the Wrens but was told I was too young and in any case im said they only wanted cooks. So I tried again as soon as I was eighteen and thought the Air Force would be better. None of the girls were being called up. We all just rushed into the fray. One of my friends was in the WAAF and she encouraged me.
Tragically she was killed in one of the raids on Southampton the following year. I took her advice and went off to Victory House in Holborn where queues of girls were waiting to enlist. After the usual string of questions we had to have a medical exam and were told that we had to give a specimen.
Nervousness made it impossible for me to produce a single drop. Not a very propitious start to my new career. So I rang up my father at the Admiralty and he took me out to lunch at the Savoy. My last decent meal for a long time. After lunch and a second visit to the Air Ministry I was successful and so began five years in uniform. Aircraftwoman 2nd class Godfrey All the new recruits boarded a train to Yorkshire, bound for Harrogate. We stayed at the Grand Hotel and were enrolled. I became awhich I can easily remember to this day: Aircraftwoman 2nd Class.
It was imprinted on a red tag hanging on a piece of cord round our necks to identify us in case we were killed. The belted jacket in Air Force blue had four square pockets, eliminating any curves which might have been visible; then came a knee-length straight skirt and a blue cotton shirt with separate collar which, as it had to be stiffly starched, left an unattractive red mark on the neck.
There were inspections every day and woe betide if a collar stud went missing it never occurred to me to have spare one. The tie was black, in mourning for the men of the Royal Flying Corps who had fallen in the Great War. The black lace-up shoes rubbed horribly, and all the clothes tended to be scratchy and uncomfortable. As snow lay on the ground, we were issued with thick double-breasted great-coats which had a full complement of brass buttons with embossed eagles on them.
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All of them had to be polished every day. Lastly came a peaked hat with RAF badge, yet another piece of brass to be cleaned. In addition, we carried cumbersome gas masks everywhere with threats of horrible punishments if we put anything else like a book or make-up in with the gas mask. Having kitted us out, they started to knock us into shape. A fearsome male drill-sergeant marched up and down stamping his feet with arms swinging to a predetermined height and bellowing at the unlikely looking group of recruits across an immense parade ground.
No more casual walking anywhere — marching was the order of the day. One week later came pay-day: Fourteen shillings and sixpence. Luckily for Bletchley Park, the German high command never lost its faith in the Enigma. But to avoid further risk of exposure, security was tightened and all information resulting from Bletchley Park decodes bore the top secret rating, code word Ultra. You don't if you're winning. They attached importance to the Blitzkrieg and winning the war quickly. We attached great importance to intelligence because we had our backs to the wall and we had nothing else that we could rely on.
When an operator typed a message on the Enigma, the machine would replace every letter with a different one. The letter typed in never came out the same. This was yet another basic flaw in the Enigma that could be exploited. The simple fact that no coded letter could ever be the original letter was vital to the codebreakers in their quest to unravel the messages.
As they studied the intercepts, it became clear that the Germans kept repeating certain set phrases. It was soon possible to predict which message contained a particular phrase. Bletchley Park called these phrases "cribs. And of course "Heil, Hitler. It went as follows: nicht und fliebar, nicht auf Gebaude, gift zu Dusseldorf, puffel swoll," and you can imagine six or seven adults who had nothing better to do on the night shift reciting this and feeling a lot better afterwards, perhaps two or three times in some cases.
I mean, that message in itself was pointless. All it said was, "you cannot fly from this place, no building has taken place, ed off, whatever. It was simply the way into the code. Finding the correct position for the crib relied on the flaw in the Enigma.
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The codebreakers lined their crib up against the coded message. Since they knew the Enigma would never duplicate a letter in the original, if any pairs of letters did match, the phrase must be in the wrong position. They slid the crib along the message until they found a point where none of the letters were the same. This could be where the phrase was located. Bletfhley successful, they could then work out the Enigma settings for the next 24 hours. The codebreakers became so adept, they would create their own cribs.
They would ask the RAF to drop mines in a specific stretch of sea. The Germans giros immediately send a message giving a grid reference for the mines. The codebreakers knew the grid reference CF97 would be spelled out in the coded German message. So they used "caesar fritz nein sieben" as the crib to find the Enigma key. Bletchley Park called this gardening. By now the codebreakers were not merely learning about the Enigma, but about the whole system of war communication.
Could the new intelligence have an impact on an entire military campaign? The test came in the deserts of North Africa. A new German general was making a name for himself with his aggressive attacks on the British: Erwin Rommel. He was very lucky in Africa, not having been wounded, except one day when a British splinter from a shell hit his belt, but the splinter was sticking in the belt and not in his body.
Throughout the desert war swung back and forth across Libya as the Germans tried to capture North Africa. Bletchely only radio for communications, Rommel's North African campaign depended on the Enigma.
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He could not imagine that something like this could happen. He relied totally on the Italians to bring in supplies.
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Rommel's supply lines were a natural target for the British. The RAF was able to attack Italian convoys crossing the Mediterranean to Rommel because the codebreakers could read both the German Luftwaffe Enigma and the Grils special machine cipher. I mean, he was a superb general, he was winning, but then he started losing because his supplies were always sunk in the Mediterranean.
But to keep Ultra safe, it had to look as though the British knew about the convoys from some other source. Once the Girlx had been proven by the Germans seeing a British airplane looking at the convoy, then you gletchley use it, but not until. They might very well say, "I wonder how they knew it," but fortunately they always deluded themselves by saying it must have been an Italian traitor in the Naples docks. But in heaven he must apologize towards the Italians and say, "I was wrong. Although the German secret service never cracked an Allied cipher machine, Rommel did obtain vital inside information from a spy.
The incident began earlier in when a group of American codebreakers visited Bletchley Park. With America not yet officially at war, the secret services on both sides were nervous about collaborating. They - it takes time for spies to warm up with one another, and even British and American spies, they played their cards very close to their chests. British security hirls were justified, for these exchanges soon gave Rommel his own intelligence breakthrough.
The Germans intercepted the messages, but couldn't break the diplomatic code. Then, in Septemberthe Italian secret service broke into the U. The thieves copied the secort book and returned it to escorrt safe without anyone knowing. Now Rommel could read all embassy transmissions about the British campaign.
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Armed with information about British troops and tanks, Rommel launched a bold assault through Libya, pushing the British back miles polidh 17 days. The news that reached Churchill painted a grim picture of defeat.
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Now the British needed their own intelligence coup to reverse the disaster. At Bletchley Park, the codebreakers raced to crack the escorh rotor settings. Some breaks came in only six to 12 hours. Still, lives might be saved if the operation could be speeded up. The gifted codebreaker Alan Turing had long been intrigued by the idea of building machines to automate the codebreaking process.
The Poles had built such a device before the blftchley, but Turing set out to improve on their ideas. Turing's goal was to build a machine that could figure out how the German operators had set up their Enigmas for that day's messages. Using stock inn, or cribs, to deduce the rotor settings was the most time-consuming part of the whole codebreaking process. ANDREW HODGES: Alan Turing's great breakthrough was seeing - that finding out the rotor settings from that crib was something that could be done by a machine, that was the great starting point and brought the whole thing into the modern age.
Curiously, Bletchley Park called it the Bomb, perhaps because of the ticking noise it made while operating. Occasionally I heard we beat the Germans to the decryption. This happened when A would send B a message and B would almost immediately send back a message, a very short message, which just said, "I can't read you. And if it was something hot, it'd get out in the field before the German commander got his. The drums clicked round letter by letter, testing the thousands of possible Enigma settings - 20 every second - until the correct one had been found.
Turing said no, what you do is you use the mathematical technique of rejecting all things that it couldn't possibly be. So it was a very powerful search engine, but working in a negative sense in that it rejected millions and millions of possibilities very, very quickly and arrived at the correct answer. By the end of the war there were of the devices at six different locations, enabling Bletchley Park to decode 90, messages a month. ANDREW HODGES: The algorithmic process, as we call it now, by which the crib and the cipher text were processed on these blechley systems, they were the most advanced, blecthley complex processes that had ever been used in the history of the world.
I can't think of anything else with its logical and statistical sophistication. It's something you should think of as years and years before its time. His first action was to inject fresh blood into the leadership of the 8th Army. He appointed a decisive new general, Bernard Montgomery, to take on Rommel's Africakorps. He knew from Ultra that Rommel was prepared to attack somewhere in Egypt - but where?
Montgomery predicted the ridge at Alam Halfa. Some days later we decoded a al from Rommel saying, I am going to attack on the 30 th of September the Alam Halfa ridge, which is exactly what Monty had said.
I think from that moment on Monty was so confident of his own intelligence that he couldn't be beaten, he couldn't - he knew everything. The Allies finally realized that the Germans were reading U. Rommel no longer knew what the enemy was planning. Montgomery was still receiving Ultra from Bletchley Park. Soon, the German forces were under enormous pressure.
But some of the decoders began to feel impatient with Montgomery. PETER HILTON: We felt that Montgomery did not trust the intelligence information that Bletchley Park was providing him with, because we believed in our own arrogant way that we were probably providing a service to the military that no other military had ever had in the history of warfare.
We're going to finish with this chap Rommel once and for all. Bletchley Park knew Rommel's plans, his forces, and his losses. For the first time in the war, an army moved into battle with precise advance knowledge of the enemy. Ultra told Montgomery of Rommel's critical shortages of fuel and tanks. On the evening of the 2 nd of November, Rommel aled Hitler for permission to retreat.
Montgomery read the message within hours. At El Alamein Montgomery's superior forces crushed Rommel. Yet he decided not to pursue the remnants of the retreating German Army. So Monty could have wiped Rommel off the face of the earth. Why he didn't do so, why he didn't wipe it off the face of the earth, I simply do not know, nobody else knows. It was so full, I mean that was our exasperation. We were giving Monty every conceivable information about the state of Rommel's troops, the of operational tanks, which was terribly crucial.
I mean, you know, enough - about as many tanks as could be parked on the lawn at the back of this house. In desert warfare, no tanks and you're finished. Here's some excellent news which has come during the past hour from GHQ Cairo. It says, the Axis forces in the western desert after 12 days and nights of ceaseless attacks by our land and air forces are now in full retreat. Churchill and Roosevelt knew that the Battle of the Atlantic was crucial and that Ultra gave them a vital edge in the fight against the U-boats.
In Februarythe Admiralty received disastrous news. An abrupt change in the U-boat code plunged Bletchley Park into darkness. They could no longer read the U-boat als. Equally serious was an abrupt change in U-boat tactics. German submarines switched from the North Atlantic and began prowling the eastern seaboard of the U. There, the marauding U-boats maintained radio silence. When they did transmit, their als couldn't be decoded.
All over the Atlantic, the Allied navies struggled to cope with mounting losses at sea. As the crisis deepened, the naval Enigma team at Bletchley Park worked round the clock to crack the new code, which they called Shark. Since none of the old codebreaking tricks would work, it was obvious that Donitz had somehow drastically changed the Enigma. For the Allies on both sides of the Atlantic, it was a severe blow. There were an awful lot of protests, and England was very hesitant to tell us that they had lost control of the code.
Now all they had were rough directional fixes on the als themselves. Toward the end ofthe Allies were losing ships at over four times the rate before the blackout. Finally Bletchley Park figured out what Donitz had done. Though still believing the Allies could never crack Enigma, he was worried about internal security, and ordered the addition of a fourth rotor to the machine.
The revolving rotors, with their maze of constantly changing electrical wiring, were the secret of the Enigma. Introducing a fourth one vastly multiplied the of potential settings. Now the codebreakers would have to build a new type of device to simulate the four-rotor Enigma, and pacify the increasingly impatient Americans. COLIN BURKE: It got to the point where by mid the Americans declared that no matter what, they would go their own way and make sure they'd get their own independent capability against the German submarine menace and its code systems.
And it became quite touchy as to whether or not the two sides would cooperate. He wrote an angry report home. To resolve the crisis, Bletchley Park's second-in-command traveled to Washington for a meeting with the U. They ed an agreement to resolve concerns about security and to cooperate fully on the breaking of the naval Enigma. As part of the deal, American codebreakers would be sent to Bletchley Park.
Together they would take on the challenge of the fourth rotor.
SARAH BARING: What I think bothered us most was the destruction of the merchant shipping and the destruction of the naval ships, and knowing that if only we could break this wretched code, we could save so many lives escor sink so many U-boats. NARRATOR: The first chance to get back into the naval Enigma came when a fresh set of captured U-boat code tables arrived at Bletchley Park, enabling the codebreakers to uncover a critical weakness in the four-rotor system.
The German four-rotor Enigma used mainly on submarines had to communicate with other naval stations that used only a poliwh machine. To solve the problem, the fourth rotor could be set in bletchlwy special position that allowed the machine to simulate an old fashioned three-rotor Enigma.
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With the help of the captured tables, the codebreakers worked out the settings of the first three rotors on the Bombs as they had in the past, then simply ran through all 26 positions of the fourth rotor until they found the right one. Soon, the daily settings were on their way to the Admiralty and America. After 10 months in the cold, Bletchley Park was back. I was on night shift and somebody came running and said, "We're back into the U-boats," and it was the one that meant we were going to be able to go on getting into the U-boats so that was terrific.
It wasn't just a one off, it was - we were going to be able to do it steadily. Churchill was told as soon as possible. It was a great moment. Airborne radar and improved escort support helped assure victory in the Battle of the Atlantic. Although only a few of the men and women of Bletchley Park were in a position to appreciate it, the breaking of the naval Enigma was their finest hour.
By the spring ofthey were decoding dozens of messages a day, and cooperation with the Americans was taken to a new level. The U.
Here the first American officers were selected to the codebreakers at Bletchley Park. WILLIAM BUNDY: I remember vividly, a group of us were convened in a room there, and the moment we came in they were told, "What you're going to hear today is something you will not discuss, nletchley it means that you will never be put where you can be captured by the enemy.
This aroused the suspicions of an officer who was checking their identity. They said, would you mind taking the test, and we said no, we don't mind. There were five of us, and we took the test, and this sergeant graded them, and he came running up, he says, "Holy mackerel. What scores! You guys ought to be in intelligence! I had been full of stereotypes about the English, you know, they're distant and have no i of humor, and these were the most outgoing, wonderful people.
Fed us when it was quite a sacrifice, just enough screwballs to be real fun. It was there that I learnt for the first time to drink tomato juice, it was the first experience I had with American coffee and American bacon, so that in a way America was introduced to me through this Bletchley prelude. The only serious dispute arose when the British challenged the Americans to a game of rounders, the British version of baseball.
So the Americans came and we showed them how they could play blethcley - they said what, no baseball bat? We said no, we just use this broom handle. So they said fine. And we played. It was a lovely day. We all played well.
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And at the end of the game, we all sort of clapped each other on the back and the Americans said well, "We're sorry we beat you," and the British captain said, "I'm sorry we beat you. And they said, "Well what rules do you play by? They knew that in addition to Enigma, the Germans sometimes used another completely different kind of cipher machine. It was actually a group of policemen on the south coast of England. They were listening for German agent transmissions from within the U.
Of course there weren't any because we'd captured all the agents, but they were still listening for these and they heard these weird als. And they sent them to Bletchley Escor. Hitler had demanded a cipher machine for the German high command that was faster and even more secure than the Enigma. His experts devised a coding system based on the teleprinter machine.
Teleprinters operated on a simple, universal binary code that was widely known. But the Germans connected the teleprinter to a machine that cunningly exploited the teleprinter language itself to produce a complex code. The secret German pplish machine was called the Lorenz. To scramble a polisj the Lorenz used 12 rotors - not just the three or four of the Enigma. DONALD MICHIE: The Lorenz machine transmits a string of letters, each one of which is actually a mix of the real letter of the real message and a piece of machine crafted gobbledygook, that machine being of diabolically complex craftiness.
So at the end of it, what comes out and goes over the ether and is transmitted, is a single string of total gobbledygook. TONY SALE: The operator presses polsh key on his teleprinter, that generates an electrical al, the Lorenz machine then adds an obscuring character to this al and the esclrt is then transmitted. At the other end blstchley the link another Lorenz machine set to exactly the same configuration regenerates exactly the same obscuring character, adds it back to the cipher text, and by the magic of modulo two arithmetic they cancel out and leave you with the plain text.
It's what's known as pseudo random. Unfortunately for the Germans it was more pseudo than random, and that's how it was broken. They worked out that fish was based on teleprinter language. How to strip off the bletcgley code was anybody's guess. But on the 30 th of August,a lazy German operator gave the whole game away. TONY SALE: When he got to the end of keying in this nearly 4, character message by hand, the operator at the receiving end sent back in German the equivalent of, "Didn't get esocrt, send it again.
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